Combination therapy may provide significant protection against lethal influenza

A significant proportion of hospitalized patients with influenza develop complications of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Investigators have found that treatment with an immune receptor blocker in combination with an antiviral agent markedly improves survival of mice infected with lethal influenza and reduces lung pathology in swine-influenza-infected piglets. Their research also provides insights into the optimal timing of treatment to prevent acute lung injury. Source

A modified protein appears to trigger lung fibrosis after environmental exposure

Research shows how cadmium and carbon black can trigger lung macrophages to produce a modified protein, citrullinated vimentin, which leads to lung fibrosis. Researchers also describe mechanistic steps in lung macrophages and lung fibroblasts that leads to the lung scarring. One enzyme involved in these steps, PAD2, may be a promising target to attenuate cadmium/carbon black-induced fibrosis. The study also reports a potential mouse disease model for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Source

New bioink brings 3D-printing of human organs closer to reality

Researchers have designed a new bioink which allows small human-sized airways to be 3D-bioprinted with the help of patient cells for the first time. The 3D-printed constructs are biocompatible and support new blood vessel growth into the transplanted material. This is an important first step towards 3D-printing organs. Source

How critical part of lung forms at cellular level

Researchers have determined what happens at a cellular level as the lung alveolus forms and allows newborns to breathe air. Understanding this process gives researchers a better sense of how to develop therapies and potentially regenerate this critical tissue in the event of injury. Source